The population genetic structure of plant pathogenic fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis was examined using microsatellite (SSR) markers. According to the geographical origin of the pathogen populations, they were designated as North Caucasian (S, 33 isolates), northwest (Nw, 39), and Omsk (Om, 43). The populations were analyzed at the nine most polymorphic SSR loci, at which 75 alleles were identified. To characterize the genetic variation within and between populations, the AMOVA algorithm as implemented in the Arlequin v. 3.5 software program was used. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 12 and their sizes varied within the range from 180 to 400 bp. The mean gene diversity at SSR loci was high for all populations (H = 0.58–0.75). The populations were considerably different in the frequencies of individual alleles of the SSR loci. Most isolates in the populations were represented by unique haplotypes. The within-population variation of the isolates at molecular markers was 86.4%; among the populations, 13.6%. Substantial interpopulation differences were found between the Om and S (F st = 0.16) and between the Om and Nw (F st = 0.20) populations, whereas between the S and Nw populations, these differences were small (F st = 0.05). Thus, it was demonstrated that the population of P. tritici-repentis from Omsk oblast had the independent status of the geographical population; northwest and North Caucasian populations differed in the allelic diversity of SSR loci, and despite the low F st value (0.05), they also belonged to independent geographical populations.