Active surveillance is an important option to reduce prostate cancer overtreatment, but it remains underutilized in many countries. Models from the United States show that greater use of active surveillance is important for prostate cancer screening to be cost-effective.
To perform an up-to-date, nationwide, population-based study on use of active surveillance for localized prostate cancer in Sweden.
Cross-sectional study in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden from 2009 through 2014. The NPCR has data on 98% of prostate cancers diagnosed in Sweden and has comprehensive linkages to other nationwide databases. Overall, 32?518 men with a median age of 67 years were diagnosed with favorable-risk prostate cancer, including 4693, 15?403, and 17?115 men with very-low-risk (subset of the low-risk group) (clinical stage, T1c; Gleason score, =6; prostate-specific antigen [PSA],
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