The present research was aimed at evaluating the effect of the conditioned medium (CM) from human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) obtained from healthy donors (hPDLSCs-CM) and from Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients (RR-MS-CM) on inflammatory response induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS-G) in a monocytoid human cell line (THP-1) and human oligodendrocyte cell line (MO3.13). Human periodontal ligament biopsies were carried out from control donor patients and selected RR-MS donors. Sample tissues were obtained from premolar teeth during root scaling and subsequently cultured. The effect of hPDLSCs-CM and RR-MS-CM on cell viability in PMA differentiated THP-1 (as a model of microglia) was measured using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The same experiments were performed in undifferentiated and differentiated MO3.13 cells used as models of progenitor cells and oligodendrocytes, respectively. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 was evaluated by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression level of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), for which LPS-G is a ligand, was evaluated by Western blot analysis. The results were analyzed by ANOVA using Graph Pad Prism software. LPS-G significantly increased TNFa, IL-1ß and IL-6 mRNA expression and protein levels in the differentiated THP-1 cells and oligodendrocyte MO3.13 progenitor cells. Treatment with hPDLSCs-CM or with RR-MS-CM significantly attenuated the LPS-induced expression and production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. The CM from both healthy donors and RR-MS patients also reduced the LPS-G stimulated protein levels of TLR-4 in differentiated THP-1 cells. On the whole our data add new evidence on the anti-inflammatory effects of these peculiar stem cells even when derived from RR-MS patients and open novel perspectives in the therapeutic use of autologous periodontal stem cells in neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative diseases including MS.