The aim was to determine the prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosed in Denmark and Sweden.
A total of 662 Swedish children with T1D were matched with 1080 Danish children with T1D and 309 healthy children from Sweden and 283 from Denmark served as controls. Sera were analyzed for the presence of IgA and IgG (IgAG) autoantibodies against deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IgG-tTG separately in a radioligand binding assay (RBA). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 and DQA1 genotyping were determined in the T1D cohorts.
In the Swedish T1D cohort, 17.2% (114/662) were IgAG-DGP/tTG positive compared with 11.7% (126/1080) in the Danish T1D cohort (p = 0.001) and with 9.4% (29/309) Swedish (p = 0.001) and 5.7% (16/283) Danish (p = 0.003) controls. In the Swedish T1D cohort, both levels of IgAG-DGP/tTG and IgG-tTG were higher compared with the levels in the Danish T1D (p