Dual antiplatelet therapy is standard treatment following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and stenting. However, such therapy increases the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The risk factors of UGIB are well-documented and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment reduces the risk. The aim was to describe the prevalence of risk factors of UGIB in dual antiplatelet-treated patients.
A questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among dual antiplatelet-treated first-time PCI patients in Western Denmark. The following characteristics were considered risk factors: increasing age (age 60-69 years and = 70 years); dyspepsia; previous peptic ulcer; use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (weekly or daily), corticosteroids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants.
A total of 1,358 patients with a mean age of 64.1 years (range: 33-92 years) were included. The distribution of risk factors was as follows: dyspepsia: 681 patients (50.1%); previous ulcer: 110 (8.1%; 2.3% with bleeding); use of NSAIDs: 214 (15.8%); corticosteroids (2.9%), SSRIs (5.8%) and anticoagulants (6.3%). Defined high-risk patients: 886 (65.2%). PPI treatment prior to PCI was found in 248 (18.3%), of whom 86% were at high risk of UGIB.
This study demonstrates a high prevalence of risk factors among PCI patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy, many of whom were not in PPI treatment.