The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare recently released an update of the national guidelines for the management of prostate cancer. These guidelines are produced using an evidence based method and the recommendations rely on cost-benefit assessment. They focus on controversial, new and expensive methods and the recipients are mainly healthcare administrators and commission groups. Based on these general guidelines, more detailed clinical guidelines have been published by the Confederation of Regional Cancer Centres in Sweden. The guidelines include a recommendation of evaluating systematic information on the pros and cons of PSA-testing to men aged 50 to 70 years with subsequent systematic testing for the men who choose to be tested. Active surveillance for low risk disease and radical treatment for high risk, non-metastatic disease are emphasised. Requirements for units managing prostate cancer patients are defined. The guidelines will be updated annually.