No Danish studies examining functional impairments in a naturalistic sample of clinically referred adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are available. Our study aimed to examine educational and occupational outcomes and risk-taking behaviour in a Danish clinical sample of adults with ADHD.
Naturalistic, cross-sectional study of 155 ADHD adults consecutively referred to a Danish ADHD clinic from 2010 to 2011.
A total of 51% had primary/lower secondary school only as their highest education, and 65% were not self-supporting at the time of their assessment. Criminal behaviour was found in more than 50%, suspension of driving licence in 16% and risk-taking sexual behaviour in 37-51%. Co-morbidity did not significantly increase the odds for a low educational level or of risk-taking behaviours. Having a personality disorder (PD) increased occupational vulnerability. Male gender and ADHD-C (combined type) were significantly associated with criminality and suspension of driving licence. Patients with substance use disorders and PD had non-significantly increased odds for risk-taking behaviours.
Functional impairments were evident in this Danish sample of adults with ADHD. Most of our findings could not be accounted for by co-morbidity, underlining the importance of targeting treatment at ADHD itself.
This research was funded by The Psychiatric Research Foundation of the Central Denmark Region.