Estimation of the state of the genetic diversity and the originality of the breed structure is required for the conservation and management of domestic breeds of agricultural animals. The Romanov breed of sheep from the leading breeding and gene pool farms in Yaroslavl oblast (Russia) is the object of our study. ISS R fingerprinting was used as a molecular method of the study of sheep gene pools. Forty-three DNA fragments were detected (25 and 18, respectively) by two primers ((AG)9C and (GA)9C). Of the discovered ISSR markers, 81% were polymorphic. The coefficient of genetic originality was for the first time used for the study of the specificity and originality of the Romanov-breed gene pool. Based on its values, the studied individuals were divided into five classes depending on the frequency of the ISSR fragment. The most original or the rarest, as well as typical genotypes, were singled out in the Romanov sheep gene pool. Use the obtained data on genetic originality was proposed as a means to increase the efficiency of selection and breeding during the breeding of autochthonous breeds of domesticated animal species.