In this work basic stages of formation of the epidemiological surveillance of cholera in Russia are described. In 1990-s for the first time zoning by epidemic manifestations of cholera was carried out at the level of subjects forming parts of Russia and other Republics of the Soviet Union with the introduction of differential tactics of epidemiological surveillance. Improvement of epidemiological surveillance of cholera was aimed at harmonization with the IHR (2005), integration of epidemiological surveillance of cholera and social-hygienic monitoring of water objects of I and II categories. Characterization of isolated Vibrio cholerae strains (1990-2014) on the genomic basis determined the emergence of new VNTR-genotypes of V. cholerae O1 ctxAB+ tcpA+, responsible for outbreaks, simultaneously with isolation of V. cholerae 01 ctxAB-tcpA-strains during monitoring of environmental objectsfor cholera. A viewpoint is considered of the beginning of the eighth cholera pandemic in the context of emergence of V. cholerae El Tor strains with CTXf prophage carrying ctxB gene of cholera toxin of classical biovar. Main directions offurther enhancement ofepidemiological surveillance include the study of basic data structures used in the epidemiological surveillance system, the use of zoning of municipal units offederal subjects with corresponding surveillance tactics and expected economic effect.