Gas-liquid chromatography was used for the study of the fat-acid composition of the subcutaneous tissue in males, aged 20 to 70 years, who had died in accidents. The investigation was conducted in the cities of Samarkand, Tashkent, Riga and Moscow. A significantly higher relative level of linoleic acid in the subcutaneous tissue of the native population of Central Asia than in the non-native residents of the same regions was found (19.4 and 13.7%, respectively). It is accounted for by a high consumption of cotton oil rich in linoleic acid by the native population of Uzbekistan. No significant differences in the proportion of linoleic, oleic and other fatty acids in the adipose tissue of the Russian population of Samarkand and Tashkent, as well as Riga and Moscow were found. No differences were either found in the composition of the adipose tissue of the native and non-native residents of Riga. The lower incidence of atherosclerosis among the native population of Central Asia in comparison with the non-native population of the same region and the population of the Baltic region is emphasized.