The authors propose a definitely-arranged system for organization of reanimation and intensive therapy of children. It includes 5 component elements, viz. rooms and posts of reanimation aid at kindergartens and creches, polyclinics and sanatoria; intensive therapy wards at maternity homes and pediatric hospitals; anesthesiological, reanimation and intensive therapy departments of multispecialized pediatric inpatient departments; reanimation and anesthesiological centers; a consultative travelling reanimation pediatric team. The structural form of the patients' hospitalization at pediatric reanimation departments is analyzed. Of their total number 48 per cent are surgical patients after serious operative interventions on the organs of thoracic and abdominal cavities with multiple injuries and malformations; 27.1 per cent are infectious patients, 11.9 per cent - those suffering from poisonings and 10.7 per cent patients with somatic illnesses.