A simultaneous epidemiologic survey was carried out in 1985-1986 to assess plasma lipids and lipoproteins in 30-to-59-year-old male rural residents of Buryatia. Comparative characteristics of plasma lipid profiles are presented for the native populations and newcomers to the land. Buryats and other natives were shown to have lower levels of atherogenic lipoproteins (LDLP CS, VLDLP CS) and lipids (CS, TG) and higher levels of antiatherogenic HDLP CS, as compared to the newcomers. Mean LDLP CS levels and the atherogenic index were significantly lower, and HDLP CS levels, significantly higher, in the Buryats, as compared to other natives. Specialized studies may throw light on the causes of these differences.