A long-term observation for 12 years revealed a tendency to stabilization of localization of tuberculous infection foci in rural areas and their main concentration in large villages. In such villages 82.7 per cent of new cases of tuberculosis and 80.3 per cent of new cases of tuberculous infection were recorded. The tension of the epidemiological situation with respect to tuberculosis in rural areas directly depended on the number of tubercle bacilli carriers living in such areas. It was maintained by three factors: migration of the bacilli carriers, the number of new cases of bacillary tuberculosis of the lungs and the results of their therapy. Among persons having family contacts with tubercle bacilli carriers, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 12.4 and 40.6 times higher than that resulting from professional and village contacts, respectively. A differential approach to organization of anti-epidemiological measures, early detection and prophylaxis of tuberculosis in rural areas is proposed.