This article reviews the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection with emphasis on immunoprophylaxis in its 2 forms, passive by the use of immunoglobulins and active by the use of vaccines, plasmatic and recombinant. Both have been shown to be safe, with few secondary effects an highly effective. Response to the vaccine depends on age and immunological status, there are few contraindications. In Venezuela pre-exposure vaccination is recommended taking into account the prevalence of B virus infection, which is high in certain indigenous groups, homosexuals, drug addicts and patients in hemodialysis and intermediate in health workers and pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Post-exposure vaccination is recommended in sexual contacts of persons infected acutely or chronically with the virus, in newborns of surface antigen positive mothers and in case of accidental percutaneous exposure.