A multicancer site, multifactor case-control study was undertaken to generate hypotheses about possible occupational carcinogens. Probing interviews were carried out with eligible cases, comprising all incident cases of 20 types of cancer who were male, aged 35-70 years, and a resident in Montreal. The interview was designed to obtain detailed lifetime job histories and information on potential confounders. Each job history was reviewed by a team of chemists and industrial hygienists who translated it into a history of occupational exposures. These occupational exposures were then analyzed as potential risk factors in relation to the sites of cancer included; 3,726 cases were interviewed. For each site of cancer analyzed, controls were selected from among the other sites in the study. This report concerns the associations between the 12 main types of cancer in our series and 10 inorganic dusts that are found mainly in construction and metal industries. All site-exposure combinations were investigated. After intensive control for confounding, nonadenocarcinoma (NAC) of the lung was associated with long duration-high level exposure to silica (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4), excavation dust (OR = 1.9), concrete dust (OR = 2.5), abrasives dust (OR = 1.4), and alumina (OR = 1.5). It was difficult to disentangle the relative effects of those substances, and confounding among them was a distinct possibility. Although residual confounding by some uncontrolled factors may explain the elevated ORs, the results were compatible with the hypothesis of a nonspecific relation between NAC of the lung and respirable inorganic dusts as a class. Other associations that remained suggestive after in-depth analysis were silica and stomach cancer (OR = 1.2) and concrete dust and lymphoma (OR = 2.9).