An experimental and prophylactic study was performed in an organized population of 1563 men aged 20-59 years engaged in scientific work. Intervention was realized in a group at high risk, mainly at the expense of changes in nutrition. After 3 years the main group demonstrated the lowering of the total caloricity of nutrition, consumption of food cholesterol and refined sugar together with the rise of animal protein, poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and MUFA) and complex carbohydrates consumption, leading to reduction of risk factors for coronary disease. After 3 years the control group manifested a decrease of sugar and a rise of complex carbohydrates consumption, which was not associated with changes in risk factors. It has been established using a multiple step-by-step regression analysis that the greatest effect on the drop of blood plasma cholesterol was produced by body weight reduction and diminution of the content of SFA in the diet whereas the decrease of arterial pressure by body weight reduction and the rise of the PUFA portion in the diet.