Formation of microflora in the large intestine of 5-day old infants was studied in one of the Moscow maternity homes. The up-to-date procedures for isolation and identification of aerobic and anaerobic organisms were used in the study and the findings were processed on a computer. In the newborns of the maternity home of the "mother-infant" type there was observed colonization of the large intestine with aerobic and anaerobic organisms. A wave-like dynamics in the formation of the symbiotic microflora was revealed. It reflected the phenomenon of the microbial succession in the infants. The attempts to detect microbial interference between the species colonizing the large intestine showed that it was extremely rare in the 5-day old infants. This was likely the reason of the low intestine resistance to the colonization in the newborns which in its turn defined the frequent colonization of the intestine mucosa with S. aureus and the organisms of the Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Citrobacter group.