The authors describe part of the results of a comparative clinico-economic analysis of the functioning of two models of organizational forms of psychiatric services with special reference to Moscow and Kaluga. The purpose of the given research fragment was to make a comparative analysis of expenditures on schizophrenic patients depending on the system of psychiatric services organization on the whole and between different types of services; to specify approaches to optimization of their functioning with the use of a clinico-economic approach. Based on a comparative investigation of the representative groups of schizophrenic patients (386 patients of a mental health center in Moscow and 531 patients of the Kaluga regional psychiatric hospital No. 1), it has been established that as a result of the proper organization and financing of psychiatric services in Kaluga, the "direct" expenditures on one schizophrenic patient per year could be 20% as reduced and the losses of the national income could be lowered more than 2-fold. It should necessarily be mentioned that the financing of extra hospital services in Kaluga exceeded that in Moscow more than 3-fold, reaching about 20.3% of all the expenditures on schizophrenic patients. Apparently, the organizational and financial experience gained in Kaluga with the design of the common complex and many-staged system of psychiatric services may turn fairly instrumental in elaborating approaches to optimization of the functioning of psychiatric services.