We have identified a second baby with the fetal methemoglobin F-M-Fort Ripley. It was observed in a Caucasian infant from Canada; at least eleven additional members of that family were known to have had a neonatal cyanosis similar to that seen in the propositus and in a previously described baby (2). Sequencing of amplified DNA that included (part of) the G gamma gene greatly facilitated the characterization. The G gamma X chain was readily isolated by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography; its quantity was approximately 12.5% of total gamma. Interestingly, the baby also carried the A gamma T mutation on one chromosome, either in cis or in trans to the G gamma X mutation. Hb F-M-Fort Ripley could be isolated in reasonably pure form by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The isolated Hb FX was unstable, had spectral changes characteristic for the M-hemoglobins, while its methemoglobin derivative reacted rapidly with cyanide. Oxygen affinity data could not be obtained. It is suggested that the formation of a rather large amount (approximately 25%) of mixed hybrids (alpha 2G gamma X.gamma) with low oxygen affinity is the main cause for the occurrence of the neonatal cyanosis.