A cross-national study of 104 fourth grade children's concepts of old people and extended family was conducted in Canada and the United States, using the Children's Attitudes Toward the Elderly Scale (CATE), and a modified version of the Gilby and Pederson (1982) Family Concept Interview. Both Anglo-American and African-American children were included in the U.S. sample. Results indicated that Anglo-American and Anglo-Canadian children were significantly more similar in their attitudes toward the elderly and their concepts of family than African-American and Anglo-American children. In comparison with the other two cultural groups, Anglo-American children were significantly more likely to include extended family members in their concept of who is family; Anglo-Canadian children had a significantly higher level of age discrimination ability; and African-American children showed a trend toward more positive attitudes toward older people. Overall findings of negative attitudes toward old people were consistent with earlier studies. The implications of children's ageist attitudes for increasingly aging Western societies are noted, particularly given impoverished children's potential need for extrafamilial social supports.