Having achieved equality of access to health care, Canadian policymakers are setting new policy goals, within resource constraints, primarily to achieve equity of access to health. Across the country, provincial royal commissions have explored a number of policy options to achieve this goal. These options are reviewed and critically analyzed within the context of such challenges in health policy as insufficient access to high-technology care and the limits of medical care, and such external challenges as economic and demographic trends, federal-provincial disputes, and ideological beliefs. Particular attention is given to the implications of a broader definition of health and the concept of regional health authorities. Based on the provincial reviews, the authors conclude that Canada wants to achieve equitable access to health. With the shift of health policy away from the formerly protected arena of medical care, achieving equitable access to health will require both an alteration of priorities and values and considerable political will. Canada will be forced to meet these new challenges to maintain current achievements and to make its system even more successful.