The main strategy for preventing occupational cancer is an environmentally based approach or primary prevention. However, it should be combined with screening, early diagnosis, and treatment. This review discusses screening for occupational cancer but not from the point of view of medical screening. Instead it focuses on asbestos exposure and asbestos-related cancer in Finland and the role screening plays in the current Finnish asbestos program. For example it is the feeling in Finland that screening is a very effective way of preventing further occupational exposure to asbestos and of organizing antismoking campaigns. An individually oriented strategy in cancer prevention should include the modification of exposures by behavioral change, the monitoring of early effects of exposures, and health examinations. The termination of exposure, antismoking campaigns, improved diagnostics, and careful attention to compensation issues combined with the study of other opportunities for prevention are seen as the key issues in screening.