We carried out an extensive health profile analysis in spring-winter 1986 in four Eastern Finnish rural villages as a part of the Healthy Village Study. Altogether, 793 people at working age (20-64 years of age, 427 men and 366 women) participated (80%). Serum lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) and plasma vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and C) were measured as biochemical indicators of health. The dietary habits were reflected in high serum total cholesterol, and in low plasma vitamin C (ascorbic acid, mean 34.4 mumol/l in men, and 51.2 mumol/l in women). The plasma levels of the other vitamins studied were, in general, satisfactory. The mean plasma concentration of vitamin A (retinol) was 2.70 mumol/l in men, and 2.23 mumol/l in women. The gender, high body weight and the use of animal fats had the strongest association to apparent plasma retinol concentrations. The corresponding plasma concentrations of vitamin D (25-hydroxy-D) were 34.1 nmol/l and 35.4 nmol/l, and vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) 22.1 mumol/l and 22.2 mumol/l. Vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25-OHD less than 12.5 nmol/l) was seen in 5% of the subjects. A good vitamin D status was correlated with the use of vitamin supplements, and, surprisingly, with the frequent consumption of alcohol.