The aim of this study was to examine the role of socio-economic status and the practice of physical exercise in explaining variation in muscle strength in 50 to 60-year-old women. Consequently, four study groups combining education and physical activity were formed: (1) university education, physically active; (2) university education, sedentary; (3) vocational or lower level of education, physically active; (4) vocational or lower level of education, sedentary. Maximal isometric strength of hand grip, arm flexion, body flexion and extension as well as dynamic power of the abdominal muscles were measured in 112 women. The results of the maximal isometric strength measurements were standardised by body mass index. The means of the maximal isometric strength results and sit-up tests were compared between the groups using two-way analysis of variance. The physically active women performed better than the sedentary in both the isometric and dynamic tests. Greater muscle strength was also found among the more highly educated compared with the less educated. The less educated sedentary women showed the poorest performance in the strength tests.