This paper describes the HIV-related mental health concerns of a sample of 128 persons with HIV infection in Montr?al who participated in a larger national survey of HIV-related mental health needs and services in Canada. We examined mental health distress in persons with HIV infection in Montr?al compared to other cities in Canada, and in subgroups of HIV-infected Montrealers defined on the basis of sex, age, diagnosis, and risk factor status. Results demonstrate that although HIV infection has a strong and far reaching impact on mental health, there are differences in the types of concerns and issues that are distressing to specific groups of Montr?al respondents. Uncertainty about the future and not being able to realize life goals, as well as feelings of helplessness and fears about potential adverse neurological consequences of HIV disease, were major sources of psychological distress. Feelings of depression, anxiety, and anger, as well as concerns about increasing physical disability, pain, infecting others, confidentiality, and finances were predominant concerns among specific subgroups. Differences between respondents in terms of source of income, age, and sex, and to a lesser extent diagnosis and risk factor status, were associated with varying levels of mental health distress. Although respondents in Montreal (and Vancouver) were more distressed than respondents in Toronto and Halifax, these differences appear to be due primarily to differences in age and source of income. Findings from this study will be useful to policy makers and health planners in developing services to meet the mental health needs of HIV infected adults.