The intervention group comprised 477 children at the age of 11.8 +/- 0.11 years. The reference group comprised 528 children aged 11.9 +/- 0.12 years. Both groups were drawn on the basis of the selected examination of children from two Moscow districts. The criteria for risk factors involved the upper 5% of the distribution curve for blood pressure, the upper 10% of the distribution curve for cholesterol and triglycerides, the upper 15% of the distribution curve for the Quetelet index, and a positive response to the question on smoking, "Smoke at least once per week or more frequently?"
The intervention was carried out both among the entire sample population and more intensively among persons with risk factors. It included counseling for children and their parents on rational diet, physical activity, and smoking hazards. Relevant material on health education was disseminated. Follow-up examinations were carried out at 1 and 3 years following baseline measures.
The examination at 1 year showed that the children of the intervention district had attained a greater reduction in their levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure than those of the reference district. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased equally in both districts. After 3 years, the effect was retained for cholesterol and systolic blood pressure; the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed a greater reduction in district 2. After 1 year, the increase in the Quetelet index among the intervention sample (district 1) became less. After 3 years of intervention, the smoking accretion rate had decreased by 8.9% in district 1 (intervention) compared with that in district 2 (reference).