In a dynamic population-based case-referent study on primary liver cancer and occupational exposure, the work histories of 344 cases and 861 referents, derived from the follow-up of the whole Finnish population in 1976-1978 and 1981, were analyzed by industry, occupation, and agent. After adjustment for alcohol consumption, elevated odds ratios were found for the categories other agricultural workers (mainly milkmaids), clerical workers, persons exposed to welding fumes and those exposed to other inorganic dusts (mainly silica). One possible explanation for the excess among milkmaids was exposure to dust from cattle feed contaminated with aflatoxins. The excess among clerical workers was probably due to nonoccupational factors or chance because occupational exposure was generally rare. The excesses for welding fumes and inorganic dusts, although compatible with occupational etiology, contradict the results of many previous studies carried out among workers exposed to silica dust and welders.