For the first time the natural immune stratum to hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome (HFRS) among the population of all regions of Bashkiria, a large territory with the highest morbidity level in this infection in the USSR, was studied. 9,176 persons over 15 years of age were examined by radioimmune techniques. Analysis of the immune structure of the population revealed that the share of immune males was higher than that of immune females, but the difference was less than the difference between males and females among the registered HFRS patients. Among children immune persons were almost completely absent. The immune stratum increased rather slowly among persons under 40 years, and only from this age the considerable increase of the immune stratum was observed (up to 16.2%). High risk groups included persons of such professions as forestry workers, truck and tractor drivers, oil workers and prospectors, livestock breeders, builders. These data may be used for the formation of groups to be vaccinated against HFRS in foci with different degrees of activity. Before vaccination the correction of groups to be vaccinated in a given region should be carried out, taking into account the immune structure of the population and the specific features of the local landscape and economy.