On May 1, 1977 a new code was introduced into the Danish Road Traffic Act. The result was a change in layout and speed limits in a great number of residential streets; in most cases the streets were transformed into 30 km/h streets and in few cases into 15 km/h streets. In addition to speed signs, both types of streets were equipped with speed reducing measures. Based on experiences from a selection of experimental streets, mostly 30 km/h streets, different, but very positive effects were found. Overall there was a reduction in the mean speed in these areas of 11 km/h. On the 223 km, 30 km/h streets there was a reduction of 77 accidents and 88 casualties within a period of three years. These reductions were caused by the implementation of speed signs, speed reducing measures, and a reduction in traffic. On the basis of 44 experimental streets, where traffic was recorded both before and after the changes, the reduction in risk of casualties, i.e. the number of casualties per road user km, was 72%, while the risk of accidents seemed to be unchanged. Considering serious injuries alone, a very high reduction of 78% was found. Accidents included in the study consist of all police reported accidents, i.e. accidents with personal injury as well as damage only accidents.