The paper provides the results obtained from implementation of the programme on multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Moscow, which provided strong evidence for a reduction in the levels of major risk factors and mortality from cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease. The efficiency of comprehensive prophylactic measures in persons with clinical signs of CHD showed up at year 3 of their implementation and retains in subsequent years. At the same time in persons without CHD signs a mortality reduction starting at years 4-5 of the follow-up virtually came to an end when a further active intervention ceased. The impact of aftereffect of active prophylactic measures after intervention cessation turned out to be different in the examinees at various baseline risk factor levels, which suggests that continuous prophylaxis should be done, on the one hand, and it requires a differential approach, on the other. The reduction in the extent and mean levels of major risk factors, which had been achieved during a 5-year prophylactic intervention, retained, though it was less pronounced and 10 years later. However, this was followed by an increase in the mortality from myocardial infarction and stroke and their incidence in the population that had undergone active prophylactic measures, though the value of these parameters was lower at the end of the tenth year than in the controls.