The authors observed 32448 cases of alimentary toxoinfection (AT), 96.8% of which were females. Acute surgical abdominal conditions arose in 3.6% of them: appendicitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis. Aggravation of chronic diseases occurred in 11.6% of the patients, hypertension and cholelithiasis being most frequent. 119 patients developed myocardial infarction, 266 hypertension crisis. The occurrence of acute and chronic diseases were analyzed in relation to common pathogenetic features, role of infection, intoxication, microcirculatory disturbances and hemostatic impairment. AT are suggested as risk factors of certain diseases likely to deteriorate prognosis.