The main purpose of this report is to present the nosological spectrum of hereditary diseases in 9 Districts of Kirov Province and to compare it with that studies earlier in other Russian populations. This comparison is undertaken in an attempt to define a "nucleus" of hereditary diseases in the Russian population studied. During this study 343 families with 546 affected were registered. The spectrum covered 55 different autosomal dominant, 14 autosomal recessive and 11 X-linked recessive hereditary disorders in the population under study. Some of these forms could be considered as common forms for the whole Russian population, because they were met in all Russian populations which were analysed. This conclusion is proved by the cluster analysis of genetic distances calculated on the basis of gene frequencies for autosomal recessive hereditary disorders.