An epidemiologic study of malignant tumors was carried out in a cohort of population of a district in Moscow. The district is situated on the leeward side of a cluster of factories which discharge 270 cu tons of pollutants per year. Nine of the eleven apartment houses under study were put up in the 60-70 ies when the factories were in operation. The cohort included 1,095 males and females who had lived in that district at least 5 years until the start of the investigation. The tumor morbidity and mortality in this cohort were evaluated for the period of 1988-1992. Morbidity of virtually all known tumors and mortality proved to be in excess of all expectations. However, significant differences between the actual and expected levels were obtained in the total number of tumors, in females, only (actual number-24; expected number-13.76), and for breast tumors (7 and 2.82, respectively).