The aim of the work was the comparative study Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes, isolated from healthy carriers and acute pneumonia patients in different regions of the CIS; in Moscow observations were carried out for 10 years. Specific antibodies to different S.pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide antigens were determined in blood serum samples by the method of heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay. The study revealed that S.pneumoniae serotype spectra in healthy children and in children with acute respiratory viral diseases were similar, while from pneumonia patients with complications of pleuritis caused by S.pneumoniae serotypes 1, 3, 5 and 14, were more frequently isolated. During 10 years of observations changes in the occurrence of individual serotypes were noted both in carriers and in patients. Differences in the serotype spectra of S.pneumoniae isolated in different regions were established. S.pneumoniae serotype 5 caused 70% of pleuritis cases in Tashkent, while rarely occurring in regions with the moderate climate. S.pneumoniae serotype 14, formerly causing complicated forms of pneumonia, lately became more widespread, but at the same time caused fewer cases of pneumonia with complications. High occurrence of pneumonia among children aged 1-3 years correlated with a low level of specific antibodies in the child population.