We assessed the role of long-term exposure to ambient air malodorous sulfur compounds released from pulp mills as a determinant of eye and respiratory symptoms and headache in children. Adverse health effects of environmental exposure to these compounds in children have not been reported previously. The parents of 134 children living in a severely polluted (n = 42), moderately polluted (n = 62) and rural nonpolluted (n = 30) community responded to a cross-sectional questionnaire. The response rate was 83%. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for symptoms experienced during the previous 4 weeks and 12 months in the severely versus nonpolluted community were estimated in logistic regression analysis controlling for age and gender. The risk of nasal symptoms (4 weeks OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.59-3.31; 12 months OR 2.47, 95% CI 0.93-6.53), cough (4 weeks OR 1.83, 95% CI 0.75-4.45; 12 months OR 2.28, 95% CI 0.95-5.47), eye symptoms (12 months OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.43-3.05), and headache (12 months OR 1.77, 95% CI 0.69-4.54) was considerably increased in the severely polluted community, although not quite reaching statistical significance. The results suggest that exposure to malodorous sulfur compounds may affect the health of children.