Klinefelter's syndrome (KS, XXY) as a risk factor for developing breast cancer was evaluated in a retrospective study of 93 unselected male breast cancer patients from the Healthcare region of Western Sweden. Archival normal material from lymph nodes or skin and subcutaneous tissue was examined using the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridisation)-technique. The best yield of intact nuclei was obtained from lymph node tissue. The prevalence rate of KS in males with breast cancer was found to be 7.5 per cent, a much higher rate than previously reported (approximately 3 per cent). Methodological differences are suggested to cause the increased prevalence rate. Based on our finding and on the prevalence of KS in the normal population as well as on the incidence of MBC, a 50-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer in males with KS relative to normal males was found. The same median age at diagnosis, 72 years, was established for both groups of patients. No differences in survival were seen.