Dietary risk factors for renal cell cancer were investigated in a population based case-control study of incident cases. A total of 351 cases and 340 controls matched for age and sex were interviewed about dietary habits as well as exposure to other known or suspected risk factors. An association was found between risk of renal cell cancer and energy intake, especially fats. There was no protective effect of fruits but a weak protective effect of cruceferous vegetables. The association with diet was present after adjusting for the effect of cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status and body mass index, all of which have been identified as risk factors for renal cell cancer.