The paper presents data on primary infection and infection rates of children from contacts with tuberculosis and from the healthy environment. The infection rates of the contacted children is 3.4 times higher, especially in infants and preschool children. It also shows factors predisposing to infection: asocial families when the patient shows his physician's noncompliance, the lack of revaccination in children and drug prevention. In 25.6% of children, infection had been detected before they were found to have contacts with a tuberculosis patient, and examinations of the infected child's environment made it possible to detect an adult tuberculosis patients. By and large, in 1994 the detection rate of tuberculosis in adults among children with primary infection was 7.4 per 1000 examinees in Kazan, which is 10 times higher than that at mass fluorography of the adult population.