The prevalence of NTRK1 re-arrangement was determined in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) of children from Belarus who had been exposed to radioactive iodine after the Chernobyl reactor accident; 81 tumors were included, all of which were devoid of RET re-arrangement as analyzed in a current study on genomic alterations in PTC. Oncogenic fusion of the NTRK1 tyrosine kinase domain with the amino-terminal part of the tropomyosin gene (TPM3/NTRK1, trk) was observed in 5 tumors. A single tumor exhibited a TPR/NTRK1 fusion (TRK-T2). Reciprocal NTRK1/TPM3 transcripts were found in 4 of 5 tumors with TPM3/NTRK1 re-arrangement, indicating an intra-chromosomal balanced reciprocal inversion. No phenotypic differences from other post-Chernobyl childhood PTCs were detected. As compared with the high prevalence of RET re-arrangements reported for thyroid carcinomas of children after the Chernobyl reactor accident, NTRK1 re-arrangements appear rare. Our results confirm that activation of receptor tyrosine kinase genes plays the predominant role in post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid carcinogenesis.