A review is given on the major technological and methodological aspects of retrospective ESR dosimetry with tooth enamel. Topics include the collection and preparation of samples, the evaluation, treatment and interpretation of the ESR signals, and the procedure of dose reconstruction. Two pathways are described to differentiate between doses from different internal and external sources. They are based on dose comparisons as evaluated from different tooth issues or from dose vs age dependencies obtained by ESR dosimetry from populations with different exposure conditions. The concepts given are illustrated by recently achieved ESR doses that were reconstructed from teeth of radiation workers and members of the public of the Southern Urals region, Russia.