Annual surveys of the food intakes and nutritional status of schoolchildren (aged 10 and 15 y) in a Moscow district were conducted in 1992-1995, a period of rapid economic transformation in Russia. Food intake was assessed through use of two 24-h recalls. A few socioeconomic variables-parental educational level, family size, participation in organized sports, and use of school breakfast and lunch options-were included in the dietary interview. Nutritional status was assessed by measurement of height and weight and comparison with international standards. There was a slight difference in the food pattern in the two age groups and some differences between boys and girls. Milk and other dairy products, fruit, juices, and vegetables were consumed in small quantities and relatively infrequently. Bread and bread products, porridge, confectionery, and meat and meat products were consumed more frequently and in larger quantities. Protein contributed approximately 12% and fat 29-32% of dietary energy. About 70% of the subjects had low intakes of riboflavin and calcium compared with reference values. Mean nutrient intakes did not change significantly during the study period. During the first 3 y of the study period, there was a nonsignificant overall decrease in height and weight but this was within the limits of normal variation.