Primary health care (PHC) has been proposed as a key strategy for improving the health of the world community, and nurses are acknowledged as key health-care professionals in meeting this goal. Efforts to have nurses implement PHC policies presuppose that they are knowledgeable about this approach to health care and have positive attitudes. The underlying aim of this study was to develop a measure of knowledge, attitudes, and practices in PHC and to assess the reliability and validity of the measure with a sample of student nurses and faculty in degree and diploma programs. The Primary Health Care Questionnaire (PHCQ) is a three-part self-report measure that provides quantitative data on knowledge and attitudes and qualitative data on practices of PHC. The instrument was developed from a rigorous review of the literature and systematic feedback from two panels (local and national) expert in PHC. Data were collected from 457 students and faculty in one four-year degree program (three sites), one post-diploma degree program, and three diploma programs, in a western Canadian province. Internal consistency reliability estimates using Cronbach's alpha were .76 (knowledge) and .85 (attitudes). Test-retest reliability at two weeks was r = .67 (knowledge) and .76 (attitudes). Content validity was enhanced through a systematic review of the instrument by a two-phase local and a national expert panel. Findings indicated greater knowledge and more positive attitudes among senior compared to junior students, degree compared to diploma students, and faculty compared to students. These findings lend support to the validity of the measure. The qualitative data revealed that learning opportunities related to PHC were built into both the diploma and the degree program through classroom teaching, clinical practice, and written assignments.