In connection with professionalization of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation there was the necessity of deep study of laws and theoretical bases of the estimation criterion of readiness to the military service of various quota of military personnel. In this article the approaches to the given problem decision are reflected. The authors consider, that the military-medical examination represents complex process of study and estimation of the biomedical and social status of the person, definition of his conformity to conditions of the military service, the correlation of diseases and injuries with military service, but also sanction of other questions with removal of the written conclusion. The scientific development of the methodical approaches to definition of estimation of criteria of readiness category to the military service on the basis of priority of medical criteria over social in peace time becomes now one of the major problem of the military-medical examination. The authors discussed the methodological and theory questions of military-medical examination. These disputable questions require further discussion and scientific substantiation.