Introduction of cordocentesis into clinical practice has made progress in antenatal diagnosis and treatment of congenital (hereditary and acquired) fetal diseases. Cytogenetic, molecular biological, biochemical, and immunological studies of fetal blood have substantial advantages for prenatal diagnosis. Direct administration of blood components and drugs into fetal blood circulation is the treatment of choice in some fetal diseases, severe types of hemolytic disease. Intravascular injection of myorelaxants was shown to greatly favour long-term intrauterine interventions. The potentialities, advances, and prospects of intrauterine surgical correction of fetal developmental disorders are discussed.