Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an oligo- or polygenic disease but no specific susceptibility genes have been identified so far. In the Finnish population we have previously found evidence for linkage between MS and the myelin basic protein gene (here called Golli-MBP gene) suggesting that either Golli-MBP or another gene in its vicinity contributes to MS suceptibility. Here we have screened the Golli-MBP gene for nucleotide variations and carried out multipoint association analyses in a Finnish case-control data-set as well as in an independent data-set composed of 151 MS families from Finland and Sweden. In both data-sets we found association between MS and alleles in the 1.27 kilobase (kb) range at a tetranucleotide repeat element (TGGA)n which is located 1 kb upstream of the MBP exon 1. Haplotype analyses suggested that the MS-associated 1.27 kb alleles can be split into predisposing and non-predisposing variants and provided evidence that the candidate DNA region contributing to MS susceptibility should be located at the Golli-MBP gene within a 20-25 kb segment that was conserved in the predisposing haplotypes. These findings suggest a role for the Golli-MBP locus in MS susceptibility, at least in a subset of patients, and serve as a basis for highly focused attempts to identify predisposing mutation(s).