This report concerns one new mutation in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene in three patients originating from three unrelated Dutch families with autosomal recessive L-DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD). In this study, all exons of the TH gene were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and subjected to analyses by single-strand conformation polymorphism. An aberrant migration pattern was observed for exon 6 of the TH gene in all patients. Direct sequencing of the coding region of exon 6 revealed the presence of one novel missense mutation. An a698g transition resulted in the substitution of the evolutionary conserved arginine 233 by a histidine (R233H). All patients were homozygous for the mutation. This new mutation in the TH gene was confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis with the restriction enzyme HhaI. Thus, a high proportion of defective TH alleles may be R233H in The Netherlands.