Gynaecological examination of girls during childhood is undertaken somewhat infrequently. These genital examinations should not be taboo or a frightening experience for the girl, for her parents or for the physician. Studies of children suspected of sexual abuse have paid attention to the wide variety of gynaecological conditions already present in childhood. In 1988 we founded a special gynaecological outpatient clinic for girls under 16 y of age at a university hospital to develop the special knowledge and skills needed in children's gynaecology. In this gynaecological clinic for children and adolescents we were able to gain and offer expert knowledge of the problems of this age group. In this special clinic for children, gynaecological examination by special techniques and sonography led to a diagnosis in 71% of the patients without any instrumentation. Children and adolescent girls in need of special gynaecological care should be recognized specifically. Particular attention should be paid to the gynaecological care of victims of child sexual abuse and mentally or physically handicapped girls. In good co-operation with the girl, a gynaecological examination can become a positive experience during the development of female identity.