The leptin gene (LEP) has been linked to extreme obesity. However, no common obesity-related gene variants have been found to exist in the LEP. The present study was designed to investigate the LEP for variants by screening both the putative promoter and the coding region of this gene in obese Finnish subjects (n = 200; body mass index, > 27 kg/m2). PCR-amplified DNA samples were subjected to single strand conformation analysis. A G144A substitution in codon 48 and a G328A substitution in codon 110 were identified in two obese subjects, both of whom had very low serum leptin levels. A rare silent C538T polymorphism was detected 33 bp downstream of the translation stop codon (TGA). A common polymorphism A19G was identified in the untranslated exon 1. This polymorphism was not associated with traits of obesity; in agreement, the allele frequencies were similar between 64 normal weight and 141 obese Finns. In summary, this study failed to find a common gene variant in the LEP associated with obesity, but introduces 2 rare mutations associated with very low serum leptin concentrations in 2 obese subjects.