Nurse-midwives are responsible for taking Papanicolaou (Pap) smears in Swedish population-based cervical cancer screening programs. A research project examining the screening program from the perspective of different stakeholders includes an interview study of 21 midwives working in Stockholm. This article explores the way the midwives describe cancer-related knowledge and aspects of screening, contrasting this with relevant findings from a substudy of 66 healthy women participating in screening. A semistructured interview guide with open-ended questions was used to investigate ideas about benefits and risks in the screening program, risk factors for cervical cancer, the reliability of the test itself, sources of information/knowledge relevant for cervical cancer screening, and the manner in which the midwife described her role in the screening program. The transcripts of the audiotaped interviews were analyzed thematically using a team approach. The interviewed midwives showed a great deal of consensus in their descriptions of lacking familiarity with cervical cancer and its prevention and treatment. The midwives said they lack recent education and knowledge, often avoiding use of the word "cancer" with women attending screening. It seems that the midwives experienced little professional guidance in discussing cancer-related issues with women attending the screening program. In this study, they appeared to rely on personal knowledge, values, and experience instead.