Human evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of the animal carcinogen trichloroethylene (TCE) is limited. We evaluated cancer occurrence among 803 Danish workers exposed to TCE, using historical files of individual air and urinary measurements of TCE-exposure. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for cancer overall was close to unity for both men and women who were exposed to TCE. Men had significantly elevated SIRs for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR = 3.5; n = 8) and cancer of the esophagus (SIR = 4.2; n = 6). Among women, the SIR for cervical cancer was significantly increased (SIR = 3.8; n = 4). No clear dose-response relationship appeared for any of these cancers. We found no increased risk for kidney cancer. In summary, we found no overall increase in cancer risk among TCE-exposed workers in Denmark. For those cancer sites where excesses were noted, the small numbers of observed cases and the lack of dose-related effects hinder etiological conclusions.